Global distribution of mangroves and salt marshes (D’Odorico et al. 2012)


Tidal salt marshes:
Extend from artic to subtropics
Dominated by herbaceous or low shrubby vegetation
low energy wave action and high sedimentation

Mangrove swamps:
Extend from tropics and subtropics
Dominated by trees
higher energy wave action and high levels of salinity


Research Interests:


-Intertidal ecotone (saltmarsh + mangrove swamps) as a zone between the marine and terrestial
   -saltmarsh + mangrove swamps act similarly as ecological and biological filters
   -marsh grass + mangrove are halophytic vegitations (salt tolerant)



-Energies of the Vertical + Lateral Soil Accretion system (happening similarly in both saltmarshes + mangroves swamps)
 
    -Abiotic
         -tidal forces + flooding frequency
         -meterological forces (e.g. storms)
         -mineral transfer (e.g. nitrogen, salt, etc.)

     -Biotic
         -marsh grass + mangrove as structure
         -plant growth and decay process 
         -depositional process 
         -storage of organic (blue) carbon within produced biomass (pluffmud/detritus)

These are self-organizing feedback loops that allow these ecotones to adapt to various environmental factors.
This system allows these ecotones to be among the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems on earth.
These ecotones store more organic carbon, on a per area basis, than any other type of biome on earth.
These coastal ecotones, sequester and store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests and are now being recognised for their role in mitigating climate change.
 


- The encroachment of mangrove ecotones into Saltmarsh ecotones 
       -rising temperatures 
       -rising sea level
       -the ability of mangroves to reproduce propagules (vivipary)
       -rising amount of large storms (hurricanes + cyclones) 
       -not bad or good, but its change
       




      
Visualizations: 


Gamified Simulation
Setup
    -32 black and 32 white pieces randomly occupy all the 64 cells.
    -A dice/randomizer that generates black/white/grey

Introduction (story and theme)
    -Black and white each represent mangrove and hammock. Although salinity tolerable, mangrove is not competitive in         freshwater. Hammock, on the other hand, can’t tolerate salinity yet is invincible in freshwater. Besides how the abiotic       environmental change including rainfall and tide can change the salinity of the soil, each plant can also alter the                 salinity of their own and adjacent soil. This gamified simulation abstract the dynamics between abiotic environmental       changes on soil salinity and the two plants’s energies to help players better understand mangrove/hammock                       ecotone.

Objective
    - Both black and white maximize their territories by replacing opponents’ pieces into their own ones.

How to play
    -There are four turns in each of the four rounds.
    - Each turn
          - Roll dice
                - Black: Abiotic environment favors black
                - White: Abiotic environment favors white 
                - Grey: no change, move onto the next turn
        - The side that’s favored by the abiotic environment changes four opponent's cells into its own.
        - Each round
        - Roll dice after every four turns to see which side does the following action first.
        -Roll again if it’s grey.

        -Diagram

Takeaway
        - Black and white will eventually achieve resilient bistability through positive feedback loop of clustering even in soil            with no salinity gradient.
        - Long term mild change in abiotic environment has a larger impact than short term one.









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